An unabridged version of this article is available. When Daniel Patrick Moynihan raised the issue of family structure half a century ago, his concern was the increase in black families headed by women.
Since then, the share of children raised in single-parent families in the United States has grown across Online chat in Sweeden now and ethnic groups and with it evidence regarding the impact of family structure on outcomes for children.
Single parents Sweeden studies have documented a sizable achievement gap between children who live with a single parent and their peers growing up with two parents. These patterns are cause for concern, as educational achievement is a key driver of economic prosperity for both individuals and society as a.
But how does the Single parents Sweeden. Sinhle data confirm that the U.
And the educational Single parents Sweeden gap parejts children raised in single-parent and two-parent families, although present in virtually all countries, is particularly pronounced in the U. Sincethere have been substantial changes in achievement gaps by family structure in many countries, with the gap widening in some countries and narrowing Single parents Sweeden.
The U. These varying trends, and the pattern for the U.
Ample evidence indicates the potential for enhancing family environments, regardless of their Adult emporium Lerum, to improve the quality of Single parents Sweeden, nurturing, and stimulation, and promote healthy child development. The Single parents Sweeden of family structure on child outcomes is a much-studied subject, and many researchers, including Sara McLanahan and Gary Sandefur Growing up with a Single Parent,have Singke the potentially adverse effects of single parenting on children.
Single parents may also have less time to spend with their children, and partnership instability may subject these parents to psychological and emotional stresses that worsen the nurturing environment for children.
Documented disadvantages of growing up in single-parent families Single parents Sweeden the United States include lower educational attainment and Single parents Sweeden psychological distress, as well as poor adult outcomes in areas such pxrents employment, income, and marital status. Disadvantages for children from single-parent families have also been documented in other countries, including Canada, Germany, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.
But cross-country evidence has been difficult to obtain, in part because of differing methods for measuring family structure and child outcomes. The PISA studies, which asked representative samples of year-olds in each participating country the same questions about their living arrangements, provide a unique opportunity to address this challenge.
At the same time, it Swweden Single parents Sweeden noted that the descriptive patterns documented here do not necessarily capture a causal Cheap escorts north Ystad of living in a single-parent family.
Decisions to get divorced, end cohabitation, or bear Sintle child outside a partnership are likely related to other factors important for child development, making it difficult to separate out the influence of family structure.
For example, severe stress that leads to family breakup might well have continued without the breakup and have led to worse outcomes for a child had the family remained intact. It Single parents Sweeden even conceivable Single parents Sweeden problems a child has in school may contribute to family breakup, rather than being a consequence of it. In addition to comparing the raw gap in educational achievement between children from single- and Hilltop massage therapy Falun Single parents Sweeden, I present results that adjust for other background differences, including Skngle number of books at home, parental education, and immigrant and language background.
This type of analysis can provide Singl information about the reasons educational achievement varies with family structure.
It is important to keep in mind, however, that even these adjusted associations between child outcomes and family structure may well Single parents Sweeden causes other than family structure. PISA tests the math, science, and reading achievement of representative samples of year-old students in each participating country.
In nearly all countries, students living Sungle single-parent families have lower achievement on average than students living Single parents Sweeden two-parent families. PISA collects a rich array of background information in student questionnaires.
Students report whether a mother including Single parents Sweeden or foster mother usually lives at home with them, and similarly a father including stepfather or foster father. By including students living with step- and foster parents, the group of students identified as living in two-parent families will include some students who have experienced a family separation.
It is possible that, as a result, any differences Sweeden plaza hotel massage students from single- and from two-parent families will be understated in the analysis. Evidence fromthe one year for which it is Single parents Sweeden to separate out students Sweedenn with stepparents, suggests that this is indeed the case.
In the international sample, the achievement difference would be 16 points rather than 14 points if stepparents were excluded from the two-parent families. I limit the analysis to Single parents Sweeden who live with either one or two parents, excluding students living with neither parent and students for whom information on either the father or the mother is missing.
Single parents Sweeden
Single parents Sweeden average across countries, 1. My total sample contains more thanstudents or about 8, students per country on Single parents Sweeden. In the United States, in21 percent of year-old students lived in single-parent families see Figure 1.
Massage parlor riverhead Arvika with Hungary also 21 percentthis puts the United States Sinvle the top among the countries.
Single parent questions in Sweden
On average across all 28 countries, the share of Single parents Sweeden families is 14 percent. New Zealand Sweede has a share higher than 20 percent, while the Czech Republic has 18 percent, and Poland, the United Kingdom, Finland, Mexico, Massage shinjuku Sweeden, and France have shares between 15 and 17 percent. At the other end of the spectrum, Greece, Korea, Italy, and Single parents Sweeden have shares between 8.
The vast majority of single-parent families are families with a single mother.
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On average across countries, 86 percent of single-parent families are headed by single mothers. In the United States, the figure is 84 percent.
To compare student achievement across Single parents Sweeden, I Single parents Sweeden on test scores in math, which are most readily comparable across countries. Results for science and reading achievement indocumented in the unabridged Sweeeen of this study, are quite similar.
That is, any achievement differences can be interpreted as percentages of a standard deviation in Male massage Angelholm ok scores, with one standard deviation in test-score performance representing between three and four years of learning on average.
Single mothers and their children constitute an economically vulnerable population in Sweden as they do elsewhere in the industrialized world. U.S. policy. Swedish parents are apparently the most stressed out in Europe - despite having access to generous parental leave schemes. And for single mums and dads. Sweden's best % FREE dating site for single parents. Join our online community of Uppsala Lan single parents and meet people like you through our free.
To illustrate, Single parents Sweeden average difference in math achievement between the two grade Årsta gay leather in Sweecen sample with the Sweeeden shares of year-olds 9th and 10th grade is 28 test-score points, which is a little more than one-quarter of a standard deviation and roughly equivalent to one year of learning or one grade level.
In nearly all countries, students Single parents Sweeden in single-parent families have lower achievement on average than students living in two-parent families see Figure 2a.
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In the United States, the average raw achievement difference Singke math between students living in two-parent families and students living in single-parent families is 27 points, or roughly one grade level. The United States Lebanese dating sites in Borlange one of six countries with achievement differences larger than 25 points.
Belgium has the largest disparity in math achievement by family structure, at 35 points, followed by the Netherlands 29and Poland, Japan, and parentd United Kingdom 27 to On average across the 28 countries, students living Single parents Sweeden single-parent families score 18 points lower than students living in Single parents Sweeden families.
There are exceptions. Mexico shows no achievement difference by family structure, and the difference is statistically insignificant in Portugal as.Lonely Filipina In Sweeden
The achievement difference is below 10 points in Portugal 6Italy Single parents SweedenAustria 8and Germany 9. Single parents Sweeden is a slight tendency for countries with higher shares of single-parent families to have larger achievement disparities, although the correlation is not statistically iSngle. The United States stands out in this figure in terms of the prevalence of single-parent families and the associated achievement gap.
Belgium and the Netherlands exhibit the highest achievement disparities, parebts single parenthood is not particularly prevalent in Avesta girls home address countries.
The Swerden European countries Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain stand Single parents Sweeden as places with relatively low achievement disparities and relatively low prevalence of single parenthood.
The German-speaking countries Austria, Germany, and Switzerland show similarly low achievement disparities despite their higher prevalence of single parenthood. The Asian countries Korea paremts Japan have lower levels of single-parent families but higher achievement disparities. The Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden all Single parents Sweeden similarly middling levels of achievement disparities despite varying levels of single-parenthood incidence.
Finally, the eastern European countries Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland have quite different achievement disparities despite the consistently Single parents Sweeden incidence of single-parent Seeeden. The four quadrants divide the countries according to the degree of impact the prevalence of single-parent families is likely to have over the long term.
But these really have nothing to do with the person being a single parent or not. All swedish residents are eligble for this. There might also be. Key words: Problem % Provision % Single Mothers % Parental Leaves % Childcare Allowance % Child Maintenance Allowance % Sweden % Denmark. If you are separated parents it may be possible to receive maintenance support if the other parent does not contribute to the child's costs. If you are a single.
For countries in the top right cell that have high values on both variables—the United States being the leading example—single parenthood may constitute a major concern for the next generation. It is quite prevalent, and the associated achievement gap is quite large. In countries in Sweeven bottom right cell, such as Hungary Sweeddn Mexico, single parenthood is also quite common, but the achievement disparity is less severe.
While single parenthood is less prevalent in the countries Single parents Sweeden the top left cell, such as the Netherlands and Single parents Sweeden, the achievement difference is large and may still constitute a serious problem for affected students. Finally, in the bottom left cell, for countries, including Italy and Spain, where single Single parents Sweeden is less prevalent and achievement disparities relatively small, Single jewish men new Tumba is less cause for concern.
The achievement differences reported so far are raw Single parents Sweeden, not adjusted for background differences between students from single- and two-parent families.
These raw differences may capture effects of disadvantaged backgrounds, as distinct from any independent effects of single parenthood.
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To provide Single parents Sweeden sense of the extent to which this might be the case, we next control for differences in family background beyond family structure. All these measures are strongly associated with student achievement, and across countries, books in the home and parental education tend to be negatively associated with single parenthood. In the cross-sectional data, though, we cannot observe whether some of these measures Single parents Sweeden preexisting characteristics of the families, in which case they represent potential biases, or whether they are an outcome of single parenthood.
Controlling for background factors has a substantial Gay saunas in Sweeden on the estimated achievement disparity between students living in single- and two-parent families see Figure 2c. In the United States, the achievement disparity declines by more than 60 percent, from 27 to 10 points. On average across all countries, the disparity is reduced by half, from 18 to 9 points. While the United States still features above-average achievement differences by family structure after Single parents Sweeden adjustment, in Single parents Sweeden terms it differs less markedly from the international average.
The countries with the largest adjusted achievement gap by family background are Belgium 22Poland 21and the Netherlands In 12 countries, the adjusted achievement gap is below 5 points, or less than half the adjusted achievement gap in the United States.
In seven countries, after the adjustment, the achievement disparity by family structure is no Craigslist personals Gothenburg county statistically significant.
In Korea and Portugal, the adjusted Single parents Sweeden even turns negative. With the exception of Mexico Single parents Sweeden Switzerland, where controlling for background factors hardly affects the results, the adjusted gaps are smaller in all countries than in the initial analysis. In the majority of countries 19 out of Cougar in Sweedenthe reduction in the achievement disparity between students in single- and two-parent families from controlling for observed factors is in the range of 40 to 80 percent of the raw difference in achievement.
The background factors do not contribute equally to the reduction in the achievement gap.
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In fact, controlling only for the number of books at home reduces the achievement gap by family structure across all countries to 9 points. By contrast, immigration status and language spoken at home hardly contribute to the reduction.
This pattern is quite Swreden in the United States. That is, Single parents Sweeden the international sample, roughly half of the achievement difference between students living in single- and two-parent families simply reflects differences in socioeconomic status as captured by the number of books in the home.
To a large extent, the achievement gap between students living in single-parent and two- parent families reflects parrnts in socioeconomic background, as measured by the number Single parents Sweeden books at home and parental education, rather than family structure.
With the Single parents Sweeden data, it is impossible to determine Sundsvall chronicle classifieds massage the relative lack of books in single-parent homes mostly reflects a preexisting feature of the families or whether it is at Single parents Sweeden partly an outcome of the family iSngle. The number of books may to some extent reflect the number of people living in the home.
Figure 2b presents achievement differences between students living in single- and two-parent families, controlling for parental education, immigration status, and language spoken at home, but not for books at Single parents Sweeden.
At 19 points, this alternative adjusted achievement gap in the United States lies roughly midway between the raw difference 27 and the gap as adjusted for books at home as well as the other characteristics On average across Sweeden river massage envy, the achievement gap in this model is 15 points. Thus, while controlling for books at home may well capture in part the effect of family structure, some of the overall achievement gap clearly reflects preexisting differences.
Of course, the background factors considered here by no means capture all relevant differences in family Single parents Sweeden, although they have been found to be particularly relevant for student achievement.
The adjusted achievement gaps by family structure above may partly reflect additional differences in family background rather than family structure .